January 4, 2019 | Author: Stela Valentinova | Category: Phrase, Sentence (Linguistics), Verb, Subject (Grammar), Clause
Share Embed Donate

Short Description

Download Syntax...


(1) Problems of Syntax

Syntax is the branch of linguistics which studies the structure of sentence. It is concerned with the ways words are combined to form sentences. Ilyish recognizes two levels within the domain of  syntax: that of phrases and that of sentence. The phrase narrowly, and more usually, is said to be a particular kind of syntactic unit. Only 5 types of   phrases are widely recognized – Noun phrase, Verb  phrase, Adjective phrase, Adverb phrase, Prepositional phrase. Ex. The old man was staring gloomily out of the window. It contains two NP ‘the old man’, ‘the window’; one prepositional phrase ‘out of the window’; and so on. A consideration should be done between two other  notions ‘sentence’ and ‘clause’. It is with specimens of simple sentences that we study such categories as  parts of the sentence, main and secondary; word order, and other different notions. As long as we come to ‘composite’ (a term found in Ilyish, standing for both – complex and compound) sentences, we have to deal with the notions of main clause, head clause, and subordinate clause. Whatever is said about a simple sentence also applies to an independent clause within a composite sentence. 1 a) Syntactic patterns. Ilyish speaks of phrase patterns and sentence  patterns. Phrase patterns can be as follows: A + N,  Nm + N, V + Adv, V + N (words belonging to different class); class); N + N, V + V, Adj. + Adj., Adv. + Adv. (words belonging to the same class). English simple sentence/clause structure is made up of the following 5 constituents: S – subject, V – verb, O –  object, C – complement, A – adverbial modifier. The S usually stands in initial position and is followed by the V. The types of verbs are essential for the types of sentence patterns. Each clause pattern has a nucleus (which is obligatory part) and may attach optional extensions. (Cs – Complement to the Subject, Subject Complement; Co – Complement to the Object, Object Complement; Cp – Predicator  complement) S–V ‘The train arrived.’ S – V –C ‘She ‘She’s ’s a teac teache her. r.’; ’; ‘Sh ‘Shee beca became me a teacher.’ S –V –Cs ‘ He He is is a s tu tu de de n ntt s. s. ’ S – V – Cp ‘The boy resembles his father.’ S–V–A ‘She is in London.’ S–V–O ‘He broke the window.’ S – V –O –C ‘ S – V – O – Cs ‘Mary will make John (IO) a good wife (CS).’ S – V – O – Co Co ‘Mary made made John (DO) (DO) a fool (Co).’ S – V – O – Cp Cp ‘He turned him (DO) into a slave (Cp).’ S – V – O – A ‘He put the vase (DO) on the table (Adverbial (Adverbial modifier).’ S – V – O – O ‘He gave his sister (IO) a book  (DO).’ 1 b) Pragmatics is the branch of linguistics which studies those aspects of meaning which derive from the context of an utterance, rather than being intrinsic to the linguistic material itself. According to Leech, Grammar is what is expressed on the surface level and pragmatics is what is expressed on the deep level. According to Cook pragmatic meaning illustrates what a word or utterance means and does, according to the context. It is not usually perceived as an authority to semantic meaning but as dependent upon it. Pragmatic meaning is derived from the interaction of semantic meaning with the context.

(2) Types of Syntactic Relations

2 a) Coordination is a grammatical means of  connecting clauses with equal rank. It is a joining syntactical syntactical relationship. It is a typical syntactic relation by which a sentence can be extended – it may involve more than two members. ‘The dog frightened the child.’; ‘The dog frightened the child and chased his brother.’ etc. Coordination in a sentence can be syndetic when it uses coordinators like conjunctions or adverbs or it can be asyndetic – without coordinators. Ex. ‘I went to the market and there I bought fruit.’ (syndetic); ‘People appeared, cars disappeared, the situation got worse.’ (asyndetic) Coordination is the typical means of joining clauses in Compound Sentences. There are several types of  coordination in the compound sentence: Copulative coordination with its typical coordinator  ‘and’. ‘And’ denotes simple addition if there is logical connection. By ‘and’ can be implied: a) chronological consequence/successive action ‘She did her homework and she went for a walk.’; ‘He kissed her and sat down.’; b) result ‘He saw the crash and called the police.’; c) parallelism ‘She loves and admires him.’; d) contrast ‘John is nice and his sister  is nasty.’; e) condition ‘Give me some money and I’m going to help you.’; f) simple addition ‘He has long hair and he wears blue jeans.’ ‘Nor … and… neither’ indicates that both clauses are negative. ‘Neither Peter wanted that job, nor did his wife.’ Disjunctive coordination – central coordinator ‘or’. This type of coordination suggests choice – the meaning of one clause excludes the other clause (one or the other of the clauses is true but not both of  them). ‘He is at work or he is at home.’ ‘Or’ indicates alternative: ‘You can cook a meal or you can go to a restaurant.’ Adversative coordination – the central coordinator is ‘but’; other are ‘whereas’, ‘while’, ‘nevertheless’, ‘however’ – all of them denote contrast. ‘The room was small but the corridor was wide.’ 2 b) Subordination is a syntactic relation where the  joined members are not of equal rank. In the sentence ‘The dog frightened the child.’ the verb ‘frighten’ demands something to complete its meaning – ‘the child’ (in this case). ‘The child’ is subordinate to the verb. Some verbs demand a phrase, others a whole sentence. Some word class needs something to complete their meaning semantically. Subordination is binary and involves only two members in most cases. It is non-symmetrical relationship: ‘Ann loves John because he has a big house.’ When it is not binary, there is a hierarchical organization. Subordination appears within the complex sentence in which one or more parts are represented by clauses. 2 c) There are two types of subordination  – concord and contact. Concord means the agreement of a verb with its subject as in ‘He does’, ‘They do’. There are several types of concord: I) Grammatical Grammatical concord refers to: - Common countable nouns: a clause in the  position of S ‘How they got there doesn’t interest me.’

-  Nexus construction – non-finite verb forms ‘To say this in public was stupid.’ - Prepositional phrase – ‘After the exam is the time.’ - ‘There’ may be not in concord with the following noun phrase: ‘There is hundreds of people on the waiting list.’

(part of Q 2)

(3) Principle of Combination of Word Classes

II) Concord Concord of of person person – as with ‘to ‘to be’ be’ – ‘I am’, am’, ‘You are’ and Present Simple ‘She plays’ III) Notional Notional conco concord rd – agreemen agreementt to the idea of  member ‘The police have difficult job.’

Grammar has to study the aspects of phrases which spring from the grammatical peculiarities of the worlds making up the phrase, and of the syntactical functions of the phrase as a whole. A) Combinations Combinations of words belonging belonging to the the same class 1) Noun Noun + Noun Noun – Noun Phras Phrasee ‘John’s ‘John’s bag’; bag’; ‘science fiction’ This is a most usual type of phrase in Modern English. It must be divided into two subtypes, depending on the form of the first component, which may be in the common or in the genitive case. The type ‘noun in the common case + noun’ may be used to denote one idea as modified by another in the widest sense. We find here a most varied choice of  semantic spheres, such as speech sound, silver watch, army unit. The first component may be a proper  name as well, as in phrases a Beethoven symphony or London Bridge. The type ‘noun in the genitive case + noun’ has a more restricted meaning and use. 2) Verb + Verb Verb – Verb Verb phrase phrase ‘to be + inf’ ‘She is to come late’ ‘to be + pres. Part.’ – continuous tense ‘modal verb + inf’ – ‘She can write’ 3) Adj + Adj Adj ‘yellow ‘yellowish ish brown brown’’ 4) Adv + Adv ‘fairl ‘fairly y quickly quickly’’


Proximity – agreement with the word that  precedes the verb ‘Nobody, not even teachers were listening.’ V) SubjectSubject-Obj Object ect concor concord d – in membe memberr and gender – ‘He injured himself in the leg.’ VI) SubjectSubject-Com Complem plement ent concord concord – in number  number  ‘The child was an angel.’ VII) Pronoun concord concord – refers to personal personal pronoun which agrees with their antecedents in number. Contact is another relation. It means that the verb agrees in number with the word that precedes the verb ‘One of ten agree to go home.’ 2 d) Interdependence – it concerns two syntactic units which are independent (comperatively) and at the same time dependent on each other. ‘The dog’ –  independent but at the same time dependent on ‘the child’. 2 e) Accumulative relations are another type of  relations, ex. ‘my own children’ ‘my’ and ‘own’ are not similar in grammatical terms. They form a kind of collocation. In the phrase ‘my own house’ – ‘my own’ refers to ‘house’, ‘house’ is the head word (antecedent), and ‘my’ doesn’t refer to ‘own’. We cannot use ‘my’ without ‘own’. ‘very big houses’ –  the adj ‘big’ is subordinate to houses, ‘very’ is subordinate to ‘big’; ‘houses’ is independent. The  position of the words also determines whether the item is in position of coordination or subordination. Ex. ‘garden flowers’; ‘flower garden’.

B) 1)

2) 3)

Some combina combination tion of words words belong belong to different clauses Adj Adj + Nou Noun n – Nou Noun n Phras Phrasee ‘blue ‘blue shirt’ Another very common type, which is used to express all possible kinds of things with their properties. Num. Num. + Noun Noun – Noun Noun Phra Phrase se ‘thr ‘three ee  birds’ V + Adv Adv – Verb Verb Phra Phrase se ‘speak ‘speakss loudly’


(14) The complex sentence (Types)

In complex sentences the clauses are not on an equal footing. In the simplest case, a complex sentence consisting of two clauses only, one of these is the main/independent clause, and the other a subordinate clause. The independent clause can function as a complete sentence. The subordinate clause also contains a subject and a verb but cannot function as an independent sentence. Ex. We surveyed the damage as the wind subsided. The semantic relations that can be expressed by subordination are much more numerous and more varied that with coordination: such as relation of time, place, concession, purpose, etc. are expressly stated in complex sentences only. Then again, the means of  expressing subordination are much more numerous –  there is a great variety of conjunctions [when, after,  before, while, till, until, though, that, as, because, since, etc.], a number of phrases performing the same function [as soon as, as long as, notwithstanding that, in order that, according as, etc,], besides a certain number of conjunctive words: relative pronouns [who, which, that, whoever, whatever, whichever] and the relative adverbs [where, how, whenever, wherever, however, why]. The notions of declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentence appear to be applicable to some types of complex sentences as well. For  instance, if the main clause of a complex sentence is interrogative or imperative, this implies that the complex sentence as a whole is also interrogative or  imperative respectively. Ex. Never you mind (imperative) how old she is., so the whole sentence is imperative.

V + Noun – Verb Phrase It may correspond to two different types of  relation between an action and a thing. In the vast majority of cases the noun denotes an object of the action expressed by the verb, but in a certain number of phrases it denotes a measure rather than the object, of the action. This may be seen in such  phrases as, walk a mile, sleep an hour, wait a minute, etc. It is only the meaning of the verb and that of the noun which enable the hearer or  reader to understand the relation correctly. V + Noun – Predicative (сказуемно определение) ‘She is a student.’ V + Noun – Object ‘I’m reading a book.’


V + Pronoun – Verb Phrase ‘I saw her’

(4) The Simple Sentence (types) – includes clause/simple sentence patterns. The Sentence is a group of words capable of  expressing a complete thought or meaning (according to traditional definition). The sentence is a main unit of analysis in Syntax. It is unique among other  linguistic units because there is no an inventory (list of all possible sentences). The sentence is a chunk of  text made up of units which are known as immediate constituents. According to type of communication there are 4 types of sentences: I) Declarati Declarative ve type, type, which contai contains ns statemen statement, t, which gives information about events, grammatically they are characterized by Subject-Predicate structure with the direct word order. The statement can be  positive or negative. Ex. ‘They work in a factory.’ II) Interrogative Interrogative sentences sentences contain questions questions and have communicative function – to ask for  information 1. General General questio questions ns – they they open with with a verb verb operator – auxiliary, link verb or modal. The tone is rising and the word order is Verb-Subject ‘Has (operator) she (S) been (V) there?’ ‘Do (operator) you (S) agree (V)? 2. Tag questi questions ons consis consistt only of of an operato operator, r, which is prompted by the verb in the statement and a  pronoun prompted by the Subject. When the statement is positive, the tag is negative.  Negative statement – positive tag – negative answer ‘You didn’t go to school, did you?   Negative statement – negative tag/Positive statement – positive tag – conclusion of the speaker; these are used to make a guess, to express interest, surprise ‘Your mother’s at home, is she?’ ‘You don’t like my cooking, don’t you?’ 3. Alternati Alternative ve question questionss imply choice choice between between two or more answers. They open with an operator   but the suggestion is expressed by ‘or’. ‘Is she coming or not?’ ‘Is’ - operator  4. Rhetoric Rhetorical al question question,, don’t expect expect an answer  answer  ‘Didn’t I tell you it would rain?’ 5. Wh-questi Wh-questions ons open open with an interr interroga ogative tive  pronoun which aims to get detailed information ‘Where did you last night?’ III) Imperative sentences express commands, commands, request or warning. They aim to make someone  perform an action ‘Don’t do that!’ IV) Exclamative sentences express strong strong feeling. feeling. The question words are intensifiers expressing a high degree of emotion ‘Strawberries! How nice!’ Similarly, Huddleson distinguishes four main types: 1) declarative ‘You made a good job of it.’; 2) interrogative ‘Did you make a good job of it?’; 3) exclamative ‘What a good job you made of it!’; 4) imperative ‘Make a good job of it!’. Huddleson though prefers the term ‘clause type’ to the term ‘sentence type’ because in the following case ‘Come with us by all means, but you may find it hard work.’, the ‘composite’ sentence consists of a sequence of clauses. It is the separate clauses that are classified by type (‘Come with us by all means’ is imperative and the second is decl.). The sentence as a whole cannot be assigned to any of the four types,  but when a sentence has the form of a clause we can talk of the sentence as being declarative or whatever. Declarative, Declarative, interrogative, interrogative, imperative and exclamative are syntactic categories. They are terms in a system of clause/simple sentence classes distinguished form each other by certain features of  syntactic structure. Statement, question, exclamation and directive (last one is Huddleson’s term for  command) are the corresponding semantic

(part of Q 4)

categories. Stating, questioning, and directing are to  be different kinds of illocutionary act.. H. distinguishes exclamation as somewhat different from the other three types in that it involves an emotive element of mean that can be overlaid on a statement, a question, or a directive. (What a rough he was!; How, on earth, did you do it so quickly?; Take that bloody grin off your face!) Syntactically only the first one is exclamation, the second is interrogative and the 3 rd imperative but they all function as exclamative. The types of Sentences according to structure are (1) Simple and (2) Composite – term found in Ilyish, it refers to both complex and compound sentences. Simple Sentence contains one clause or only one Subject-Predicate unit. According to the members of  the simple sentence we can distinguish two types: one-member sentences and two-member sentences. This distinction is based on the difference in the main parts of a sentence. One-member sentences have only one principal part  but it is not a subject or predicate: ‘Night.’ ‘An old park.’ 1. There There are two two subtyp subtypes es of one-m one-memb ember  er  sentence: a) Nominal Nominal,, when the the principa principall part is expre expressed ssed  by noun: ‘Silence!’  b) Verbal, Verbal, in which which the the princi principal pal part part is expressed by the non-finite forms: infinitive, gerund… ‘To think of what?’ 2. Two-memb Two-member er sentenc sentences es – they they have subje subject ct and predicate. They can be complete and incomplete (or elliptical). a) Complete Complete sente sentence nce – ‘I came came straig straight ht here.’ here.’  b) Incompl Incomplete/ ete/ellip elliptical tical,, i.e. a two-membe two-member  r  sentence with either the subject or the predicate omitted (different than the one-member sentence) –  ‘Ready?’ English simple sentence/clause structure is made up of the following 5 constituents: S – subject, V –  verb, O – object, C – complement, A – adverbial modifier. The S usually stands in initial position and is followed by the V. The types of verbs are essential for the types of sentence patterns. Each clause pattern has a nucleus (which is obligatory  part) and may attach optional extensions. (Cs –  Complement to the Subject, Subject Complement; Co – Complement to the Object, Object Complement; Cp – Predicator complement) S–V ‘The train arrived.’ S – V –C ‘She ‘She’s ’s a teac teache her. r.’; ’; ‘Sh ‘Shee beca became me a teacher.’ S –V –Cs ‘ He He is is a s tu tu de de n ntt s. s. ’ S – V – Cp ‘The boy resembles his father.’ S–V–A ‘She is in London.’ S–V–O ‘He broke the window.’ S – V – O –C ‘ S – V – O – Cs ‘Mary will make John (IO) a good wife (CS).’ S – V – O – Co ‘Mary made made John (DO) (DO) a fool (Co).’ S – V – O – Cp ‘He turned him (DO) into a slave (Cp).’ S – V – O – A ‘He put the vase (DO) on the table (Adverbial (Adverbial modifier).’ S – V – O – O ‘He gave his sister (IO) a book  (DO).’

(5) The phrase, Nexus Constructions [Phrase] Ilyish recognizes two levels within the

domain of Syntax, that of phrases and that of  sentences. He term ‘phrase’ as every combination of  two or more words which is a grammatical unit but is not an analytical form of some word (for instance the  perfect forms of verbs). The constituent elements of a  phrase may belong to any part of speech. For  instance they may both be nouns, or one of them man  be an adjective and the other noun, or again one of  them maby and a verb and the other a noun, or one may be preposition and the other noun; or there may  be three of them. A phrase is a means of naming some phenomena or processes, just as a word is. A  phrase as such has no intonation, just as a word has none. The phrase narrowly, and more usually, is said to be a particular kind of syntactic unit. Only 5 types of   phrases are widely recognized – Noun phrase, Verb  phrase, Adjective phrase, Adverb phrase, Prepositional phrase. Ex. The old man was staring gloomily out of the window. It contains two NP ‘the old man’, ‘the window’; one prepositional phrase ‘out of the window’; and so on.  NP is an important syntactic category. Its most obvious characteristic is that it can perform certain functions in a sentence, such as S, DO, or PrO. VP is another important syntactic category. In a sentence consists of a verb together with its obligatory objects and complements and its optional modifiers, but excludes the S of the sentences. Most typically, a VP functions as the predicate of a sentence. Ex. Susie [spread the peanut butter carefully over the bread]; Susie [wants to {go home}]; Susie [has decided that she {needs a new car}]. A VP may also function as a complement of a verb, which means that it is contained within a larger VP, ex. {go home}, and {needs a new car}. Adj.P is an entire phrase which  behaves just like an Adjective: it takes the position of  an adjective and modifies a noun like an adjective. Ex. very big, proud of her achievements, more expensive than that one. An AP normally contains an adjective as its head (big, proud, expensive). Adv.P is a complete phrase which behaves just like a simple adverb, such as ‘very carefully’ or ‘more slowly than Lisa’. PrP is a syntactic unit consisting of a  preposition followed by a noun phrase, ex. in the  box, under the bed, to London, without a hope, in front of the house, in spite of her protestations. [Ilyish] The syntactic relations between the components of a phrase fall under two categories (1) agreement or concord, (2) government. [Nexus constructions] There are many different kinds of nexuses according to Mincoff although the nexus contains no verb, it contains some form of the non-finite verb – infinitive, participle, gerund. Ex. Seeing (pres. part.) the books on the table; I enjoy seeing a nice film. Nexus constructions are widely used in English because they are more universal than finite verb forms.  Nexus construction may functions as:


Subject ‘To live in Sofia (NC = S) was her  ambition.’


Object ‘I’ve seen this play performed (NC = O) in many towns.’


Predicative Predicative ‘She appeared to like it.’

Attribute ‘His desire to meet her is not weaker.’  Nexus construction with the infinitive. We can

(part of Q 5)

distinguish the following cases: 1. Objective case + Infinitive ‘I saw him (Objective (Objective case) run (infinitive).’ This construction is used after the verbs of: - Sense perception – see, smell, feel, hear, notice… ‘I noticed her arrive.’ - Command, desire – ask, want, wish… - Causation – cause, make, get, force… ‘She forced him to go.’ 2. Nominative Nominative case + ‘to infinitive’ infinitive’ – it usually usually goes with passive voice verbs: ‘She was noticed to come.’ 3. The construction construction ‘for… to’ Ex. ‘For John John to marry her will be a disaster.’ This structure may function as subject, predicate, attribute, object and adverbial modifier.  Nexus construction with the ‘-ing’ form. It refers to the following: 1. The absolute absolute construction construction – which has a subject subject of its own: ‘Nobody saying a word (abs. construction), the meeting was closed.’ 2. The extrapositional extrapositional attribute – it does not have subject of its own and refers to the main subject of  the sentence ‘Talking loudly (-ing NC), she prepared the dinner.’ 3. The unattached unattached participle participle is a structure which which has no subject of its own ‘Looking up the hill (NC –  impersonal), a cottage can be seen.’  Nexus construction with the Past Participle. These structures are the same types as those with the ‘-ing’ form. 1. The absolute absolute construction construction ‘The job job done done (abs. construction), they went home.’ 2. The extrapositio extrapositional nal attribute attribute ‘Broke ‘Broke in in spirit spirit (NC), he retired.’ 3. The unattached unattached participle in very rare cases. cases.  Nexus object ‘I heard that matter discussed (NO) last night. (part of Q 14)

Above we defined a complex sentence as a sentence containing at least one subordinate clause. Any classification of complex sentences is therefore  bound to be based on a classification of subordinate clauses. The main clause is a clause which does not form part of a larger clause. Every sentence necessarily contains at least one main clause. A complex sentence contains in addition at least one subordinate clause. The subordinate clause cannot stand alone to make a complete sentence by itself, but which must  be attached to another clause in a complete sentence. There are several types: (1) an adverbial clause ‘We left [before we arrived]’; (2) a relative clause ‘The runner [who dropped the baton] was draught’; (3) a complement clause ‘She says [that she will come]’; (4) an embedded question ‘I don’t know [where she is]’; (5) a sentential subject ‘[That she smokes] surprised me’. Ilyish classifies the subordinate clauses in the complex sentence based on the similarity of their  functions with those of parts of simple sentence. He talks about subject, predicative, object, attributive, adverbial [clauses of place, of time, of result, of   purpose, of concession, of manner and comparison, causal and conditional cl.], appositional and  parenthetical  parenthetical clauses. It seems that he rejects the existence of relative clauses in the complex sentence  basically stating that each subordinate clause can be viewed as relative clause. Similarly to the case with the compound sentences here we can also talk about syndetic (with coordinators) and asyndetic (without coordinators)

(6) Word order (FSP, Pragmatics)

Word order in English is very rigid. There are several reasons for that. The personal endings of the verb have disappeared except for the 3 tense. The adjective appears in one single form and sometimes the adj. are homonymous with the adverbs. The SVO (subject-verb-object) word order  is typical for English and any change of it is strictly formalized and follows specific rules. The word order is functional – it carries meaning. The words are fixed in a sentence and there are strict rules for  their position. The basic word order of a declarative clause is Subject – Verb – Object. This pattern expresses the relation in the real world: Actor=S + Action=V + Goal=O There are two deviations for this basic word order   pattern – inversion and dislocation. Inversion concerns the SV order transformed into VS order: ‘S’ and ‘V’ change their position. Inversion can be: Partial – when only the auxiliary comes before the Subject ‘Have you seen him?’ = Vaux. – S –  Vfull Full inversion – When a full verb comes before the subject ‘Here comes the sun.’ Inversion can also be: I) Grammati Grammatical cal (functio (functional) nal) when when is caused by some grammatical process like interrogation ‘Have you seen him?’ Functional inversion (FI) indicates that a sentence is not declarative. Inversion is a means structuring the sentence so as to indicate some grammatical process. 1. FI in questio questions: ns: ‘Do you you know know this?’ this?’ 2. FI in imperative sentences ‘Don’t (Vaux.) you (S) come (Vfull) here!’ 3. FI in exclamato exclamatory ry sentences sentences – very restric restricted ted ‘How boring is this man’ (full inversion) 4. Conditio Conditional nal sentenc sentences es without without ‘if’ – ‘Were ‘Were I a king I would do many things.’ II) Dislocational Dislocational inversion inversion –when –when is caused caused by the the dislocation of some sentence constituent to initial  position. Dislocation means shifting some sentences constituents form their normal position. Spassov calls it ‘emphasis through dislocation’. The speaker is  producing sentences and direct his and listener’s attention to a certain word in a sentence. Ex. Never  had he seen such a beautiful vase. The whole  perspective is changed and the attention is drawn to never. It is a means of emphasis. ‘I visited him often (AM).’ – ‘Often (dislocated AM) did (Vaux) I (S) visit (V full) him.’ 1. Dislocation Dislocation of the S (subject) (subject) – because because the S is in initial position there will be a contradiction. contradiction. That’s why we may consider as subject dislocation the case with ‘complex subject’ subject’ with anticipatory it: ‘It is obvious that he is not going to come.’ – ‘That he is not going to come (S = subordinate clause), is obvious.’ 2. Dislocation Dislocation of the V (verb) (predicate). (predicate). If we  place the V before S it will be mean ‘inversion’ but there is a structure in English with ‘there’ which is not inverted pattern. ‘There arrived (V) a stranger (S) in town.’; ‘Away ran the cat.’ – in a fairy tales. After direct speech ‘That’s enough’, said Human. 3. Dislocat Dislocation ion of the O (obje (object) ct) With inversion ‘Not a word did she say.’ •

Without inversion ‘That book (O) I know Dislocation of the O for contrast ‘Some things (O) I (S) can do (V) and some things (O) I (S) cannot

(part of Q 6)


Dislocat Dislocation ion of adverb adverb With meaning of frequency ‘Often have I seen such things.’ With negative meaning ‘Hardly (AM) had (Vaux.) she (S) done (Vfull) anything wrong.’ When the adverbial is ‘thus’ to indicate manner  5. Dislocation of predicative predicative (Cs) (Cs) ‘No full (Cs) (Cs) was he.’ Other cases of inversion: 1. When a statement is repeated ‘I and ready.’ – ‘So, am I.’; 2. Full inversion with phrasal verbs: ‘Out went the lights, in rushed the guests.’ [FSP] The Prague school introduced the idea of the functional sentence perspective. Most sentences consists of two sections, one of them containing that which is the starting point of the statement (or the old information), and the other the new information for  whose sake the sentence has been uttered or written. The pair of terms used to express these two sections is ‘theme’ and ‘rheme’. The theme need not necessarily be something known in advance. It is the starting point of the sentence, not its conclusion. In Modern English there are several ways of showing that a word or phrase corresponds wither to the rheme or to the theme. Ways of showing that a word or phrase corresponds with the rheme: (1) The construction ‘it is … that [who, which]’ with the word or phrase representing the rheme enclosed  between the word ‘it is’ and the word ‘that [who, which]’. Ex. For it is the emotion that matters. (2) Another means of pointing out the rheme is a particle (only, even, etc.) accompanying the word or phrase in question. Ex. Only the children, of whom there were not many, appeared aware and truly to belong to their surroundings, for the over-excited games they  played… (3) Another means of indicating the rheme may sometimes be the indefinite article. Ex. Suddenly the door opened and a little birdlike elderly woman in a neat grey skirt and coat seemed almost to hop into the room. [change ‘a’ with ‘the’]. Means of  representing that a word or phrase corresponds with the theme: (1) It may be achieved by using the definite article. (2) Another means is a loose  parenthesis introduced by the prepositional phrase ‘as for [as to]’. Ex. ‘As for the others, great numbers of  them moved past slowly or rapidly, singly or groups, carrying bags or parcels, asking for directions… •

complex sentence. (7) The Subject (Impersonal constructions)

The Subject is one of the two main parts of the sentence which together with the Predicate constitute the predicative bond. The S is the ‘thing’ (including objects, person, and abstract notions) which is subjected to description by the predicate. Its features and characteristics are described by the predicate. The S is a nominal constituent. The S is a main part and it doesn’t depend on other  sentence constituents. It is in an agreement with the  predicate – S-V concord. Concord helps to indentify the S. The S in English is always in initial position  before the verb. ‘The train arrived.’ S may form a sentence ‘Who’s calling?’ ‘John.’ There is such term as ‘empty subject’ in English or a ‘lesser’ when it functions as a grammar element, without semantic meaning. ‘It rains.’ ‘She entered and closed the door.’ – here, the second clause has not a subject for economy. This is called ‘ellipsis’, and concerns the syntactic level. As English Language develops from synthetic to analytical one the personal endings of the verb are dropped. That is why the S is obligatory. Semantic types of the S: I) Agent Agentive ive subje subject ct – when when the doe doerr of the the action is the subject. ‘John (S) read the letter.’ II) Affected Affected subject subject – in the the same same sema semantic ntic relation, the doer is expressed by a prepositional  phrase ‘The letter (S) was read by John.’ III) Instrume Instrumental ntal Subject Subject – denotes denotes the the instrumen instrumentt of the verbal action ‘The key opened the door.’ –  actually somebody with the key opened the door. IV) Force Force Subject Subject – when when a natural natural or or mechanic mechanical al force performs the action. ‘The wind broke the window.’ V) Reci Recipi pien entt Subj Subjec ectt  – with the verbs of possession ‘John has a car.’;  – with the verbs of perception ‘I see her every day.’;  – with prototypical passive ‘The girl was given an apple.’ ‘My friend (S) was shown a picture.’ VI) Locative Locative Subje Subject ct – it denotes denotes locatio location n ‘The city is foggy.’ VII) Temporal Subject – denotes denotes time ‘Yesterday ‘Yesterday (S) was a holiday.’ VIII) Eventive Subject Subject – it denotes events ‘The ‘The   performance (S) started early.’

(part of Q 7) Subject – Impersonal constructions

Constructions ‘it … a finite or non-finite verb clause’ ‘It is difficult to remember remember this poem.’ There is a theoretical issue with this kind of  construction, as to what should be treated as a S. ‘It is difficult to do this.’ 1. The first first view view is that ‘it’ ‘it’ is the formal formal subje subject, ct, whereas ‘to do it’ is the notional subject. 2. The second second view view ‘it’ ‘it’ is the S and ‘diff ‘difficul icult’ t’ is a subject complement. 3. In this case case we have have discontin discontinuous uous S made made up of ‘it’ + ‘to do it’ where the constituents are separated from each other but together they form one unit. Most expressions of anticipator can be rendered with another type of structures: ‘It is evident that he is the  best.’ – ‘That he is the best is evident.’ Constructions with unstressed ‘there’. Such sentences are known as existential sentences: ‘There is a cat under the bed.’ This construction has an important role in English because it makes it possible to shift the ‘real’ subject – to put it after the verb. ‘One day there came a stranger into the village.’ ‘There’ constructions are a legitimate way of placing the S after the verb. It could be necessary of the following reasons: a) Communicative Communicative purposes purposes – the most important important new information has to be placed at the end. ‘One day in the little village there appeared a white swallow.’


When the S is very large and it needs to be placed at the end ‘There came the day when we finally met after long years of negotiations, broken  promises and lies.’ (large subject) Another kind of ‘Impersonal Construction’ is a   prepositional phrase: ‘After 5 o’clock (S) is the best time to meet.’


[Morphological realization of the Subject] Subject

is mostly expressed by a noun or another part of  speech but nominal in its character. The S is a nominal constituent of the sentences – substantival. Subject can be realized by: 1) A noun phrase phrase – this this is the prototy prototypica picall morphological word class: a) Simple Simple noun noun phrase phrase ‘Blood ‘Blood (S) (S) is thicker thicker than than water.’


Complex noun phrase ‘The girl you are talking to (S = complex NP) is my secretary.’ 2) A fini finite te verb verb clause clause That-clause ‘That his wife has left him (S –  a) That-clause finite verb clause) doesn’t make him unhappy.’

b) Wh-clause ‘What was said about (S) is irrelevant.’ 3) A non-fi non-finit nitee verb verb clause clause

a) With a to-infinitive ‘To say this in public is stupid.’


With –ing form ‘Robert being away doesn’t   bother me.’

(8) The Predicate (Types, Classification)

[dictionary] In the traditional two-way division of a sentence, all that part of the sentence which is not the subject. There are two major views as to what should be treated as predicate. The first one makes a distinction  between a grammatical operator and a notional component ‘He (S) had (Operator) given the boy a  book (predication).’ Here the operator operates with the grammatical categories whereas the prediction  bears the semantics. In the second view the predicate is regarded as the verb form which may take some complements. ‘He (S) had given (P) the boy a book (Complement).’ This is the traditional definition which is usually followed. The P is the second main part of the sentence. It says – predicates something about the S. In most cases it is a verb but there are exceptions. Predicates contain finite verb forms which agree with the Subjects in number and person. According to their structure predicates could be simple and compound. Morphologically they are verbal and nominal. The combination of the two groups determines four types: Simple verbal predicate Simple nominal Compound verbal Compound nominal 1) The Simple Verbal predicate predicate (SV predicate) is made up of finite verb form in indicative (which consists of one word only). 2) The Simple Simple Nominal Nominal predicate predicate (SNp) (SNp) is expressed by a noun or an adjective – it does not contain verb forms ‘He a gentlemen!!!’ – here we have an exclamation of absurdity. Another subtype is of elliptical sentences ‘Wonderful thing, beer!’ The Compound Predicate consists of analytical verb tenses formed of a finite and a non-finite verb forms. The finite form is called operator: ‘He has (operator   – only the first auxiliary) been writing letter for an hour.’ There are forms expressing mood, tense, aspect, voice, and a second form carrying meaning.

(part of Q 8)

The compound phraseological predicate – the verb here is reduced to an auxiliary and losses part of its semantics. This is a result of the analytical tendencies of the language. They are frequent in spoken language. We can distinguish 2 types of Compound   phraseological predicate: Verb + substantive ‘It took time’ The verb ‘take’ lost here a lot of semantics. Examples: ‘to pay attention’; ‘to take shelter’; to make sense’; etc. Verb + indefininte article + substantive ‘He didn’t

The Compound Nominal predicate is made up of link verb + predicative. Here the link  verb is void of lexical meaning; it is a bridge  between the subject and the predicative. ‘He is a teacher (CNp).’ The predicative here bears the semantic content. 4) The Compound Compound Verbal Verbal predicate predicate (CVp) (CVp) – it consists of 2 parts: a semi-auxiliary part – it is a finite verb which can have a modal or aspect meaning a notional part which bears the lexical meaning of the predicate (an infinitive or –ing form) Depending on the meaning of the semi-auxiliary there are 2 subtypes of CVp: a) The compound compound modal modal verbal verbal predicate predicate contains contains a semi-auxiliary with modal meaning: Modal + infinitive – can, make Be, have + infinitive ‘He was to arrive.’ ‘He is to give a lecture tomorrow.’


Verbs with modal meaning + infinitive or –ing form ‘wish to go’, ‘try to escape’, etc. ‘He wanted to write (infinitive) the letter.’ Modal verbs are called closed system because they cannot function separately.  b) The compound compound aspectual aspectual verbal verbal predicate – the semi-auxiliary has aspective meaning ‘begin to read’; ‘stop drinking’; ‘keep going’ Semi-auxiliary + infinitive or –ing form – The

(V).’ (9) The Predicative (Gram&Sem Characteristics)

The Predicative (Cs) is part of the compound nominal predicate; it is the nominal part. It completes the meaning of the link verb. [Intensive (or link) verbs have a meaning which is locked in the subject and does not go out of it.]. The Predicative (Cs) refers back to the S through the verb. S – V – Cs ‘He became a teacher (Cs).’ The predicative could be an adjective or a noun. It denotes a feature or characteristic of the S. ‘She got angry (Cs = adj.).’; ‘She is a nurse (Cs = noun).’ I) Classifi Classificatio cation n according according to the meanin meaning g of the link verb, which can be stative or dynamic: 1) Predicatives Predicatives of becoming becoming – they represent a change of state, or some new feature of the Subject ‘She turned pale.’; ‘He became teacher.’ 2) Predicat Predicatives ives of being, being, which which represen representt a  permanent feature of the state of the subject ‘She looks nice.’; ‘He seems happy.’ ‘seem’ acquires a meaning of ‘being’ and can be substituted by ‘is’. Different types of directions are formed (affected by the verb): SVCs The direction direction is is towards the Subject. Subject. The Verb can’t function without a predicative. SVO There There is a strong strong syntactic syntactic relatio relation n between between the V and the Predicative (Cs). There is no change of  the meaning of the verb. II) Classific Classification ation acco accordin rding g to the degree degree of  of  connection with the link verb, there are: 1) Extra-po Extra-positio sitional nal predic predicativ ativee – outside outside the the clause ‘There he sat, a giant among wolves.’ Here the connection is loose and if we miss the predicate the sentences still exists. When the connection with the link verb is loose the verb has a strong lexical meaning of its own.


Supplementary predicative ‘She married young’ – here the predicative completes the meaning of the verb. The connection is still relatively loosed and the predicative can be omitted ‘She married.’ The Supplementary predicative may be part of a  Nexus obj ‘They pointed the door green (NexusO)’ 3) The ‘True ‘True Predic Predicativ ative’ e’ – in this this case case the link  link  verb is void of lexical meaning. The connection with the predicative is strong and we cannot omit it ‘He looks nice.’, ‘She is a teacher.’ With some verbs it is possible to have either supplementary or true predicatives ‘She stood (V link) six feet (Supplementary predict.) in her stockings.’; ‘He stood (Vlink) godfather (True predict.) to the child.’ Morphological realization of the predicative The predicative denotes some characteristic of the Subject and that’s why the most typical realization is the adjective.


An adjective or adjectival phrase ‘Suddenly everything went black (Cs=adjective).’; ‘He appeared glad to see me (Cs=adj.phrase).’ II) A noun noun or a noun phrase – another another typical typical  phrase – the second most typical realization. ‘Martin will make (link verb) a good husband (noun phrase).’ III) Prepositional Prepositional phrase – ‘He looks of of my age.’; ‘The house was in a mess.’


A finite verb clause – ‘Things were as they had always been (finite verb clause).’ V) A non-finite non-finite verb verb clause can be two types


infinitive clauses with ‘to’ – ‘His priority is to   become a poet (non-finite/Nexus).’


An –ing clause ‘The most surprising thing was John being elected chairman (Cs).’ Predicative to the Object (or Objective complement)

(10) The Object (Structural and Semantic Classification)

Objects are part of the complementation of the verb. They complete the meaning and refer to a participant directly or indirectly affected by the verbal action. Typically, objects are substantival nominal constituents (= NP). Burton-Roberts distinguishes 6 types of verbs according to the type of object they take –  intransitive, intransitive, mono-transitive, mono-transitive, di-transitive, di-transitive, intensive, complex transitive and prepositional. The intransitive verb group is one that doesn’t require any further  constituent to the verb phrase. A mono-transitive verb group is one which requires single noun phrase to complement it. That noun phrase is said to action as a direct object ex. ‘Max spotted those wild cats.’(DO) A di-transitive verb group is one which requires two noun phrases as its complementation. Objects, depending on the relation to the verbal action, fall into DO (directly affected by the verbal action), IO – (indirectly affected) and Ob (very similar to IO, difference – the paraphrase ‘for’). In most cases di-transitive verbs take ‘one IO and one DO’. Ex. ‘Max will buy his butler (IO) a salami slicer (DO).’ Since the indirect object is mainly a person and the direct one a thing, their great interest fall in the  person and this generally leads to it being mentioned first. [IO can be recognized by its position. The IO always precedes the DO.] ‘I told him the news.’ The indirect object should have the meaning [+human] or  at least [+animate]. The typical case is when the IO is (animate), whereas the DO is inanimate. Then the distinction animate vs. inanimate helps differentiate  between ‘recipient’ and ‘thing received’ – ‘I gave the girl an apple.’ English demonstrates a universal tendency: [animate] > [inanimate]. That’s why if 2 elements are structurally identical, the animate one will come closer to the verb and thus precede the inanimate: S – V – NP (animate) – NP (inanimate). This is due to the phenomenon created by and centered on and around humans. There’s only 1 exception to this rule when the objects are pronouns, then the DO may precede the IO – ‘I gave it to her.’ If, however, the 2 objects are structurally different, then there’s a tendency for the simpler structure to come first and then follows the more complex structure: [simple] > [more complex] – ‘I gave the apple to the girl.’ NP > PP (=P + NP) According to M. Mincoff the verbs that take an indirect object fall into two groups: (1)Verbs of  giving ‘They offered him a big toast.’; (2) Verbs of  communication ‘She told him a lie.’ There is, however, a small group of ditransitive verbs, where the distinction DO vs. IO is neutralized. Diagnostic features for IO are: 1) It can’t stand alone, alone, it must be accompanied accompanied by DO.


It can be paraphrase by means of a PrO. (Prepositional structures) with ‘to’ or ‘for’. Verbs of this type are ‘to teach s.b sth, to forgive , envy, ask’, etc. Ex. “I forgive my wife her stupidity.’ Any of these objects can stand alone, hence none of  them meet criterion 1 for IO. Also, if we try to  paraphrase ‘the suspected ‘IO’ – ‘my wife’ we get the following Ex: ‘*I forgave the stupidity to my wife.’ Hence it doesn’t meet criterion 2 – there is no IO with verbs of this group. Such verbs should be treated as cases with 2 DO (Vtr. + DO1 + DO2) where one of the objects is animate and the other is inanimate. This means that the animacy hierarchy would came into effect here on 2 occasions: (1) The

stand stand a chance.’; hance.’; ‘I hoped to to make make a trip.’ trip.’

(part of Q 10)

(2) In the passive – theoretically any object can be  paraphrased into S of the passive but in practice only the pass with the animate one would be widely used, whereas the passive with the inanimate one would be marginal. The Passive paraphrase is a viable test in English for  the objecthood of a constituent. Any O in English can be paraphrased as a passive subject. ‘She was given a book.’/’A book was given to her.’; ‘The children were looked after by P.’ In the latter case even the PrO has been paraphrased as a passive structure. Semantic types of Object Semantically (or structurally), there are 2 main types of O – direct and indirect. Semantically, there are different ‘contents’ for the DO and IO a) The The direc directt obje object ct can can be be


An affected participant – refers to the person or  thing which is directly affected or otherwise involved in the verbal action. This is the typical role of the DO. ‘Jakc broke the bottle.’ Effected participant DO – denotes ‘sth’ wh exists by virtue or comes as a result of the verbal action Ex. ‘Jack invented the bottle.’/ ‘to write a letter’, ‘devise a plan’, ‘paint a picture’, etc. The difference between affected and effected DO is a covert category which can be only indirectly attested  by the so-called ‘do to’ test: ‘What did Jack to the  bottle?’ A. He broke it – ok (affected); *B. He invented it. – not ok (effected); The type effected/affected is determined by the semantic contents of the verb. Locative Od, denotes location, Ex. ‘to walk the streets (through, along)’, ‘pass the house (by), ‘to swim the river (cross)’, to jump the fence (over)’ Cognate Od – this type is form the same or  similar root as the verb. Ex. to sing a song, dream a dream, to act a past, run a race, to die the death of a saint… Object of extent or measure – to run a mile, the car weights a tone, the ploughs cost $10 (Quirk  defines them so) Other treatment for the 2 nd and 3rd example – here the O are called Cp (Predicators complement) (they’re not omissible). These are attribute Cp. Ex. ‘The  policeman fined me with 10 leva.’  b) Types Types of IO (sema (semantic ntic types) types) The most typical role of the IO is that of  Recipient and it is invariably animate ‘I gave the girl an apple.’, ‘I found your mother (rec. IO) a place (DO) in the room.’ [*I found the TV set (manmade) a  place in the room. – the correct version here should  be ‘I found a place for the TV set.’] In rare cases as an exception we may have expressions like: I gave the door (affected IO, not animate) a kick – (DO with the role of effected O); I  paid her (affected IO) a visit (effected DO) = I visited her.

finite finite verb verb form expresses presses aspect, aspect, repe repetitio tition n or  duration.

(11) The Attribute

[Ilyish] The attribute is a secondary part of the sentence modifying a part of the sentence expressed  by a noun, a substantival pronoun, a cardinal numeral, and any substantivized word, and characterizing the thing named by these words as to its quality or property. The attribute modifies other sentence constituent and characterizes it. It characterizes a noun or  substantivized constituent in terms of property or  quality. It refers to the antecedent or the head word. According to its position we distinguish the following types:


Pre-positive – attribute preceding the noun. ‘This is a nice car.’ In some cases the English pre positive attribute can be very large – extended. 2) Post-pos Post-positiv itivee attribute attribute – followin following g the noun ‘The matter discusses is of great importance.’ According to their scope of meaning there are: a) Restricti Restrictive ve attribu attributes tes – they restrict restrict the meaning so as to identify among similar items ‘He drinks only red wine.’ (not white)  b) Non-res Non-restrict trictive ive attribut attributes es – they supply supply additional information ‘This is my poor old father.’ Morphologically the attributes can have the following realization: The pre-positive attribute can be: An adjective, which is the typical attr. ‘I visited their splendid museum.’ A participle – past participle ‘a broken rose’; -ing participle ‘a smiling face’ Apostrophy – (‘s) – genitive ‘a fisherman’s cottage’, ‘She heard her mother’s voice.’ A noun (a typical English phenomenon) ‘country cottage’, ‘the car door’ Adverbial phrase ‘a faraway cottage’ A clause can be a prepositive attribute ‘a popdown-for-the-weekend cottage’ Classification of the post-positive attributes: 1) Non-fin Non-finite ite verb structure structuress


-ing form ‘The dog barking next door  (restrictive) is a bitch.’ Past participle ‘The substance, discovered by accident, helped many people.’ Infinitive – ‘The first train to arrive was from Varna.’ 2) Some adjec adjectives tives and and be in post positi position on under  under  French influence: ‘Time immemorial’, ‘Blood Royal’. There are adjectives with ending ‘-ble’ which can be in post position ‘mission impossible’ 3) Preposit Prepositiona ionall phrases phrases ‘a tree tree by the river’ river’ 4) Single Single adver adverbs bs ‘a journey journey home’ home’ Occasionally, the apposition refers to the whole sentence: Ex. He accused them of treachery, an attack that was warmly resented. The attribute might refers to the subject of the sentence. Ex. The Great Wall in China, the largest structure ever built by human beings, is visible from the moon. When the attribute is not in direct contact with its antecedent and stands either at the head or  the tale of the sentence we speak of extra-position. Ex. Meek and modest in her white dress, she goes to see them.

(12) The Adverbial Modifier

[Ilyish] gives the following definition of the Adverbial Modifier: It is a secondary part of the sentence modifying a part of the sentence expressed  by a verb, a verbal noun, and adjective, or an adverb, and serving to characterize and action or a property as to its quality or intensity, or to indicate the way an action is done, the time, place, cause, purpose, or  condition, with which the action or the manifestation of the quality is connected. This is the secondary part of the sentence. It designates the circumstances of the verbal action and qualifies it as to manner, intensity, condition, time,  place, etc. Semantic classification [according to meaning] of the adverbial modifiers is as follows:


Of manner – ‘They went slowly (AM).’

Of place and direction – ‘She lived in England (AM).’


Of time and frequency – ‘At 5 o’clock (AM time) they went home.’; ‘They go to Spain every year (AM frequency).’


Of cause – ‘He was stiff with long sitting.’ Of degree of property, condition and so on. Structural classification of the adverbial modifiers [according to their morphological peculiarities, i.e. according to the parts of speech and to phrase  patterns] Leech and Svartik distinguish adverbials with a number of different structures: Adverbs (Peter was  playing well (adv.)), prep. phrases (Peter was playing with great still (prep.phrase)), (prep.phrase)), finite clauses (Peter  was playing well although he was very tired (fc)), non-finite clauses (Peter was playing to win (infinitive), (infinitive), Being (present part.) captain of the team, Peter played to win, when urged by his owns we agreed to play again, Peter was playing unaware of  the danger (verbless clauses), Peter played last week  (noun clause), noun clauses followed by ago or long ago – Three years ago Peter played football regularly. A sentence can have more than one adverbial (My father’s working hard in the kitchen today). Leech and Svartvic distinguish 3 main positions: Front position – before the subject ‘On Sundays we so shopping’ Mid-position – immediately before the main verb if no auxiliary is present ‘Bill never goes abroad.’; or after the first auxiliary of there’s more than one verb present The end position – after an object or  complement if there’s one present otherwise it’s after the verb ‘Bill drove very careful.’ Long adverbials clauses, prepositional and noun  phrases normally occur in end position though front  position is not uncommon for emphasis or contrast (we went to Chicago in Monday, In Monday we went to Chicago.) The mid-position is usually restricted to certain adverbials such as almost, hardly, just, etc. ‘The chairman almost resigned.’; Adverbials denoting means and instruments usually have an end  position. They make, very well; The children go to school by bys; They examined that specimen.; Place adverbials (Location & Direction) usually have an

When we have a complex transitive verb, the   predicative specifies some characteristic features of  the direct object, ‘They appointed her secretary.’ The  predicative of the Object has an intense relation with the object – they are in an agreement ‘They consider  him genius.’ (part of Q 12)

Time adverbials in end-position tend to occur in the order ‘duration, frequency, time-when’ Ex. I used to swim for an hour everyday during my childhood.’ When more than one of the main classes of  adverbials occur in end position the normal order is manner – means – instrument – place – time. Ex. He was working with his long molar  molar in in the garden the whole morning. Sentence adverbials (for ex. certainly, indeed, surely,  perhaps, possibility, in fact and so on) are peripheral to the sentence. The difference between them and the other adverbials is clearly seen in the examples ‘Naturally, the children are behaving well while you are here.’ ‘The children behave naturally’ 1 st ex. ‘naturally’ is a sentence adv. and means ‘of course’; in the 2 nd ex. it is a manner adv. and refers to the verb. Sentence adv. often conveys the speakers comment on the content of what he is saying. ‘To be sure (adv.), we have heard many such promises before.’ Jackson distinguishes 3 types of adverbials –  disjuncts, subjuncts and conjuncts. Jackson claims that a small number verbs need adjunct in the structure of the sentence in which they function as  predicators. Ex. ‘Rob put his hand in the water.’ The sentence would normally be ungrammatical unless an adjunct with the semantic role of locative circumstance is  presented. Adjuncts are, however, not usually obligatory in this way. Ex. In the morning I had my breakfast in the corner  of a hotel dining room.’ ‘In the corner’ … adj. and the semantic role of time; ‘in the morning’ –  expresses time, so it is not an oblig. element. Subjects don’t function as full elements. In sentence structure … the way that adjuncts do. Their function is generally subordinatie to one element or another in the sentence though there’s a group of subjuncts which functions in respect to the sentence as a whole. There are 2 types of subjuncts; 1)view point subjuncts; 2) item subjuncts. The 1 st group represents a comment by the speaker/writer; 2 nd are subordinate to some element or another in the sentence. The 2 groups are subdivided in 2 different subtypes (Grammar and meaning; by Jackson). Disjuncts are adverbials which don’t modify anything within the sentence and are only loosely associated with it. This feeling is because of the use of the core in writing and by the distinct intonation in speech. Here, again, there are 2 subtypes (‘Gram and meaning, H. Jackson). Conjuncts – like disjuncts, they are very loosely associated with the rest of the sentence and when they are present, the sentence sounds rather old out of context. ‘For a starts, you got no clothes on.’ The conjuncts are used to indicate what kind of  relation holds between the sentence and its linguistic context. They have no function in respect to any element within the sentence that they modify. They serve to link sentences into a coherent discourse

word order of expression ‘I envied my friend the car.’ (*I envied the car my friend.);

(13) The compound sentence (Types)

Traditional grammar classifies sentences as simple, compound and complex. Huddleson explains this classification by reference to the distinction between subordinate and main clause. A simple sentence contains only one clause – a main clause. A complex sentence contains 2 or more clauses at least one of  which is subordinate. Compound sentences consist of  clauses joined together by coordinating conjunctions. There are several types of coordination in the compound sentence: Copulative coordination with its typical coordinator  ‘and’. ‘And’ denotes simple addition if there is logical connection. By ‘and’ can be implied: a) chronological consequence/successive action ‘She did her homework and she went for a walk.’; ‘He kissed her and sat down.’; b) result ‘He saw the crash and called the police.’; c) parallelism ‘She loves and admires him.’; d) contrast ‘John is nice and his sister  is nasty.’; e) condition ‘Give me some money and I’m going to help you.’; f) simple addition ‘He has long hair and he wears blue jeans.’ ‘Nor … and… neither’ indicates that both clauses are negative. ‘Neither Peter wanted that job, nor did his wife.’ Disjunctive coordination – central coordinator ‘or’. This type of coordination suggests choice – the meaning of one clause excludes the other clause (one or the other of the clauses is true but not both of  them). ‘He is at work or he is at home.’ ‘Or’ indicates alternative: ‘You can cook a meal or you can go to a restaurant.’ Adversative coordination – the central coordinator is ‘but’; other are ‘whereas’, ‘while’, ‘nevertheless’, ‘however’ – all of them denote contrast. ‘The room was small but the corridor was wide.’ All these different means of coordination of the clauses convey different meaning throughout the produced sentences. On the other hand, coordination in a sentence can be syndetic when it uses coordinators like conjunctions or adverbs or it can be asyndetic – without coordinators. Ex. ‘I went to the market and there I   bought fruit.’ (syndetic); ‘People appeared, cars disappeared, the situation got worse.’ (asyndetic). So, according to the method of joining the clauses the compound sentences can be said to be syndetic and asyndetic. When discussing simple sentences we had to deal with communication types: declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences. With compound sentences this problem requires special treatment. If both (or all) clauses making up a compound sentence belong to the same communication type it is clear that the compound sentence belongs to this type, too. But there are also compound sentences consisting of clauses belonging to different communication types. In that case it is impossible to state to what type the compound sentence as a whole belongs.

end-position. ‘The meeting will be upstairs.’ The  place adverbial can occur together in end position usually with the smaller unit before the larger. Ex. Many people eat in Chinese restaurants in London. Ex. ‘Chinese restaurants’ – smaller unit; ‘London’ –  larger unit; from smaller to larger units. Only in the larger unit they can be moved to the front position ‘In London many people eat in Chinese restaurants.’ .

View more...


Copyright ©2017 KUPDF Inc.