SAES-P-123

September 12, 2017 | Author: Ammar Rafei | Category: Fluorescent Lamp, Lighting, Switch, Components, Electricity
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Engineering Standard SAES-P-123

29 July 2006

Lighting Electrical Systems Designs & Automation Standards Committee Members Ishwait, Basel A., Chairman Hamrani, Majed Muhsen, Vice Chairman Heikoop, Dirk Johannes Badrani, Hamed Sulaiman Shaikh Nasser, Ahmed Nasser Hassouneh, Awwad Shaban Fateel, Adel Mahdi Ghamdi, Abdulaziz Abdullah Hamood, Abdulrazaq Abduljabbar Zayan, Mahmoud Bahi El-Din Almadi, Soloman Musa Ba Hamdan, Mohammed Omar

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards Table of Contents 1 2 3 4 5

Scope............................................................ 2 Conflicts and Deviations............................... 2 References.................................................... 2 Lighting Requirements.................................. 4 Illuminance Levels....................................... 11

Previous Issue: 28 February 2005 Next Planned Update: 1 March 2010 Revised paragraphs are indicated in the right margin Primary contact: Basel A. Ishwait on 966-3-8745133

Page 1 of 15

Document Responsibility: Electrical Systems Designs and Automation Issue Date: 29 July 2006 Next Planned Update: 1 March 2010

1

SAES-P-123 Lighting

Scope 1.1

This SAES covers the minimum mandatory requirements for lighting installations. This document may not be attached to nor made a part of purchase orders. Exception: Except where specifically mentioned, this SAES does not apply to residential and security lighting.

2

3

1.2

Requirements for residential lighting are found in the IESNA Lighting Handbook.

1.3

Security lighting requirements shall be in accordance with the SAES-O-113 and SAES-O-114.

1.4

Aviation and Navigation Aids 1.4.1

For high structures and stacks, special obstruction lights and warning lights shall be provided in accordance with SAES-B-063.

1.4.2

Piers, offshore platforms and similar structures extending into navigable waters must be furnished with obstruction lighting as required by SAESM-005.

Conflicts and Deviations 2.1

Any conflicts between this standard and other applicable Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards (SAESs), Materials System Specifications (SAMSSs), Standard Drawings (SASDs), or industry standard, codes, and forms shall be resolved in writing by the company or buyer representative through the Manager, Consulting Services Department of Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.

2.2

Direct all requests to deviate from this standard in writing to the company or buyer representative, who shall follow internal company procedure SAEP-302 and forward such requests to the Manager, Consulting Services Department of Saudi Aramco, Dhahran.

References The selection of material and equipment, and the design, construction, maintenance, and repair of equipment and facilities covered by this standard shall comply with the latest edition of the references listed below unless otherwise noted.

Page 2 of 15

Document Responsibility: Electrical Systems Designs and Automation Issue Date: 29 July 2006 Next Planned Update: 1 March 2010

3.1

SAES-P-123 Lighting

Saudi Aramco References Saudi Aramco Engineering Procedure SAEP-302

Instructions for Obtaining a Waiver of a Mandatory Saudi Aramco Engineering Requirement

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standards SAES-A-112

Meteorological and Seismic Design Data

SAES-B-063

Aviation Obstruction Marking and Lighting

SAES-M-005

Design and Construction of Fixed Off-Shore Platforms

SAES-M-100

Saudi Aramco Building Code

SAES-O-113

Security Lighting Systems

SAES-O-114

Check Point Lighting

SAES-P-100

Basic Power System Design Criteria

Saud Aramco Materials System Specification 14-SAMSS-600

Material, Manufacture and Preservative Treatment of Wood Poles

Saudi Aramco Standard Drawing AB-036398 3.2

Details - Street Lighting

Industry Codes and Standards National Fire Protection Association NFPA 70

National Electrical Code (NEC)

NFPA 101

Life Safety Code

Illuminating Engineering Society of North America IESNA

Lighting Handbook

IESNA LEM-3

Design Considerations for Effective Building Lighting Energy Utilization

IESNA LM-5

Guide for Photometric Measurements of Area and Sports Lighting Installations

IESNA LM-64

Guide for Photometric Measurements of Parking Areas Page 3 of 15

Document Responsibility: Electrical Systems Designs and Automation Issue Date: 29 July 2006 Next Planned Update: 1 March 2010

SAES-P-123 Lighting

IESNA RP-1

Practice for Office Lighting

IESNA RP-7

Practice for Industrial Lighting

IESNA RP-8

Practice for Roadway Lighting

IESNA RP-16

Nomenclature and Definitions for Illuminating Engineering

IESNA RP-20

Lighting for Parking Facilities

IESNA RP-24

Practice for Lighting Offices Containing Computer Visual Display Terminals

IESNA RR-96

Lighting Ready Reference / Energy Management

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials

4

AASHTO LTS-2

Standard Specifications for Structural Supports for Highway Signs, Luminaires and Traffic Signals

AASHTO GTB-77

Guide for Selecting, Locating, and Designing Traffic Barriers

Lighting Requirements 4.1

General 4.1.1

In order to optimize the effective utilization of lighting energy, interior and exterior lighting design requirements for new buildings shall be in accordance with the IESNA Lighting Ready Reference / Energy Management IESNA RR-96. Design components for lighting energy management shall be per considerations in IESNA LEM-3.

4.1.2

Lighting design shall be in accordance with IESNA RP-7, as supplemented by this SAES.

4.1.3

Lighting systems shall be designed for energy efficient operation. Commentary 4.1.3: Lighting systems should be designed to automatically turn off or minimize lighting when it is not required. In buildings, lighting in areas that are not continuously occupied should have accessible manual switches and/or occupancy sensors to insure that lighting turned off when the area is not occupied.

4.1.4

Lighting design for parking facilities shall be in accordance with IESNA RP-20.

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Document Responsibility: Electrical Systems Designs and Automation Issue Date: 29 July 2006 Next Planned Update: 1 March 2010

SAES-P-123 Lighting

4.1.5

Photometric measurements of sports lighting, when required shall be performed as per the IESNA LM-5, supplemented by this SAES.

4.1.6

Photometric measurements of parking areas, when required shall be performed as per the IESNA LM-64, supplemented by this SAES. Commentary Note 4.1.6: Point by point lighting calculation methods should be used to confirm that lighting levels satisfy the minimum levels specified in Table 2.

4.1.7

Lighting levels stated in this specification refer to minimum maintained illuminance.

4.1.8

Lighting system power supplies consisting of 120/240 volt, singlephase, three-wire; 208/120 volt, three-phase, four-wire; 480/277 volt, three-phase, three-wire or four-wire; and 480 volt, two-wire shall be acceptable. The choice of voltage and distribution system for lighting installations shall depend on the area to be supplied and the required lighting load.

4.1.9

Direct-control switches and switching contacts used on incandescent lighting circuits shall have a continuous current rating of at least 1.5 times the steady-state current of the lighting load.

4.1.10

Direct-control switches and switching contacts used on fluorescent lighting circuits shall have a continuous current rating of at least twice the steady-state current of the lighting load.

4.1.11

Outdoor non-plant area and street lighting fixtures shall be individually controlled by a photocell mounted on the fixture.

4.1.12

Photocell switches shall be of the twist-lock type and shall incorporate an inherent time delay to prevent spurious operations. Photocell switches shall be suitable for continuous operation in an ambient temperature above 40°C.

4.1.13

Where floodlights are installed on steel towers, the towers shall be equipped with steel service platforms located 1.5 m below the fixtures.

4.1.14

Poles for area lighting and street lighting shall meet the following requirements: 4.1.14.1

Poles used in process areas shall be hot-dipped galvanized steel.

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Document Responsibility: Electrical Systems Designs and Automation Issue Date: 29 July 2006 Next Planned Update: 1 March 2010

4.1.14.2

SAES-P-123 Lighting

Poles outside process areas shall be hot dipped galvanized steel or seamless aluminum alloy. Exception: Outside plant areas, fiberglass poles in accordance with standard drawing AB-036398 or wood poles per 14SAMSS-600 may be used.

4.1.15

4.1.14.3

Aluminum, steel, and fiberglass poles shall be provided with a suitable wiring compartment located at a height of not less than 150 mm nor more than 900 mm from the base.

4.1.14.4

Poles and foundations shall be designed to withstand wind loading due to a basic wind sped value stated in SAES-A112 and a gust factor of 1.3 acting on the effective projected area of the pole, bracket, and lighting fixture.

4.1.14.5

Lighting poles installed within 5 meters from roads having a speed limit in excess of 50 km/h and up to 65 km/h shall have breakaway bases per AASHTO LTS-2. For higher speed limits, wider zpones per AASHTO GBT-77 shall apply. Poles with breakaway bases shall not have traffic guards.

Mounting method of lighting fixtures shall be based on the best arrangement for illuminance, as well as easy and safe access during installation and maintenance. Commentary Note 4.1.15: The use of existing structural steel, equipment structure and building walls for mounting general area floodlight fixtures is desirable.

4.2

Lighting Fixtures, Components and Their Utilization 4.2.1

Lighting fixtures shall be listed and labeled by the Underwriters Laboratories, Factory Mutual or the Canadian Standards Association. Other labels or listings shall originate from an independent third party laboratory and shall state either that the fixtures meet appropriate designated standards or have been tested and found suitable for use in a specified manner. Lighting fixtures for hazardous areas shall meet certification requirements of SAES-P-100.

4.2.2

Energy-efficient fluorescent lamps type T5 or T8 and compatible energy efficient electronic ballasts having less than 10% THD (total harmonic distortion) shall be used in lighting fixtures for offices, Page 6 of 15

Document Responsibility: Electrical Systems Designs and Automation Issue Date: 29 July 2006 Next Planned Update: 1 March 2010

SAES-P-123 Lighting

control buildings, and in industrial areas where fluorescent lighting is required. 4.2.3

Ballasts and capacitors for fluorescent and HID fixtures shall be Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) free.

4.2.4

High-pressure sodium fixtures shall be used for outdoor area illumination, except for sports and recreational facilities. Highpressure sodium or Metal Halide fixtures shall be used for high-bay or low-bay indoor-industrial applications. Metal halide fixtures shall also be permitted in workshops, repair shops and maintenance shops where a high Color Rendering Index (CRI) is essential.

4.2.5

The use of energy-efficient fixtures like High Pressure Sodium, Metal Halide shall be maximized. Mercury vapor fixtures shall not be used.

4.2.6

Battery rooms shall be provided with enclosed and gasketed (i.e., vapor-tight) corrosion-resistant lighting fixtures.

4.2.7

Light fixtures shall be suitable for the environment where they are installed. Commentary Note 4.2.7: Canopies, roofed open porches, sunshades and like locations are considered damp locations per NEC Article 100. Per the NEC, fixtures for these locations must be approved for use in damp locations.

4.3

Plant Lighting 4.3.1

Street lighting design shall be in accordance with IESNA RP-8, as supplemented by this SAES. As a minimum requirement, lighting shall be provided at all street intersections in plants.

4.3.2

Series street lighting shall not be used. Exception: Existing series street lighting systems may be maintained and extended if this does not require additional series lighting transformer capacity.

4.3.3

Light fixtures positioned over stairways, platforms, elevated walkways and landings shall be positioned at a height of 2.03 m. Lower mounting height shall be permitted for stanchion mounted fixtures provided the fixture is positioned outside the handrail vertical plane. The mounting height shall be measured from the bottom of the fixture to the floor directly beneath. Page 7 of 15

Document Responsibility: Electrical Systems Designs and Automation Issue Date: 29 July 2006 Next Planned Update: 1 March 2010

4.4

SAES-P-123 Lighting

4.3.4

Lighting of unmanned offshore platforms is at the option of the operating proponent.

4.3.5

Area lighting of remote and unmanned on shore oil and water wells is at the option of the operating proponent.

4.3.6

To determine suitability of lighting fixtures for use in hazardous areas where the maximum daily ambient temperature exceeds 40°C, the temperature code (T-rating) shall be based on an ambient test temperature of 50°C or higher. The installation shall be in accordance with NFPA 70 and the area classification drawings.

4.3.7

Outside area and street lighting shall be controlled by photocells. In plant areas photocell control of area and street lighting shall be through a lighting contactor with a hand-off-automatic switch and provisions for remote operation. See SAES-O-113 for blackout requirements.

Task Lighting Task lighting is lighting directed to a specific surface or area to provide illumination for visual and/or manual tasks. When general area lighting provides the required illumination on a visual task, it shall be considered as task lighting. Local supplementary fixture(s) shall be required when a specific amount or quality of lighting cannot readily be obtained by general lighting. In outdoor areas where tasks are not required to be performed at night, task lighting is not required.

4.5

Emergency Lighting 4.5.1

In the event of a power failure, emergency lighting must be provided to enable operating personnel to follow planned operating and shutdown procedures. Sources of emergency lighting power include emergency stand-by generators; station batteries, where available, providing 125volt direct current; battery-operated self-contained floodlights (these are the most economical for general lighting); battery-operated fixtures.

4.5.2

Minimum duration of emergency lighting in the event of normal power failure, shall be one-and-one-half hours.

4.5.3

In manned switchgear rooms and control rooms where essential activities continue during failure of the normal lighting, a minimum emergency illumination level of 100 lux (10 fc) shall be provided at 760 mm above the floor.

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Document Responsibility: Electrical Systems Designs and Automation Issue Date: 29 July 2006 Next Planned Update: 1 March 2010

4.5.4

SAES-P-123 Lighting

Normal and emergency task lighting of at least 200 lux (20 fc) shall be provided for the following: A.

In plant areas to illuminate equipment required for use in emergencies, such as: emergency telephones, shutdown and emergency isolation stations, fire water pump areas, central foam concentrate mixing areas, fire control panels and stand-by generators.

B.

In evacuation assembly areas and in off-shore platform escape capsule areas and boat landings.

4.5.5

Illuminated exit signs shall be manufactured and installed in accordance with NFPA 101 requirements.

4.5.6

Emergency egress lighting shall be provided for the floors of required means of egress and the following, as per SAES-M-100 and this Section: 1.

Control Rooms

2.

Process Areas

3.

Switchgear Rooms

4.

In-Plant Buildings

5.

Offshore Platforms

Fixtures required for exit illumination shall be supplied from separate sources of power for items 1-5 above and where required by SAES-M-100. 4.5.7

Emergency lighting systems shall be supplied from storage batteries or an on-site generator set and the system shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of the Electrical Code.

4.5.8

The floors of means of egress shall be illuminated at all points including angles and intersections of designated corridors and passageways, stairways, landings of stairs, and exit doors. Emergency lighting facilities shall provide initial illumination that is no less than a maintained maximum of 10 lux (1 fc) and a minimum at any point of 1 lux (0.1 fc) measured along the path of egress at floor level. A maximum to minimum illuminance uniformity ratio of 40:1 shall not be exceeded.

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Document Responsibility: Electrical Systems Designs and Automation Issue Date: 29 July 2006 Next Planned Update: 1 March 2010

4.6

SAES-P-123 Lighting

Control Building Lighting 4.6.1

Fluorescent and incandescent fixtures installed in the control room shall provide shadowless illumination. The fluorescent lamps shall have 82.5 lumens per-watt efficacy and a color rendering index (CRI) of 82 at a correlated color temperature of 3,500 K or higher.

4.6.2

Lighting for control rooms shall be designed for maximum flexibility to permit flicker-free variation of illumination levels above each group of operator workstations. Fixtures shall be installed to minimize reflections and glare at operating screens.

4.6.3

General illumination for offices, computer rooms, interface rooms and general service areas shall be provided by fluorescent fixtures. Office lighting shall be done as per IESNA RP-1. Offices containing computer visual display terminal (VDT) shall be done as per IESNA RP-24. Fixtures for suspended ceilings shall be recessed mounted and shall be self-supporting in accordance to NFPA 70.

4.6.4

Incandescent spot fixtures with dimmers to provide variable illumination of up to 1,000 lux shall be used for supplementary task lighting in work areas within the control room as required. Lighting fixtures for offices and equipment rooms shall be controlled by manual switches located at the entrance to every room.

4.7

Light Loss Factors Table-1 containing Light-Loss Factors that shall be used in computing illuminance levels. Table 1 – Light Loss Factors Lamp Lumen Depreciation HPS 0.90 MV 0.67 MH (above 400 W) 0.83 MH (400 W & below) 0.77 Fluorescent 0.86 Incandescent 0.90

Luminaire Dirt Depreciation Outdoor Industrial 0.71 Outdoor Residential 0.77 Indoor Non-Industrial 0.86 Indoor Industrial 0.79

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Document Responsibility: Electrical Systems Designs and Automation Issue Date: 29 July 2006 Next Planned Update: 1 March 2010

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SAES-P-123 Lighting

Illuminance Levels The following minimum maintained (in service) illuminance levels in Table 2 shall be used. The initial field measurement after installation shall be no less than the specified illuminance divided by the light loss factor (LLF) from Table 1 and other factors utilized in the design. Commentary Note 5: The illumination levels outlined in Table 2 are the required maintained minimum lighting levels (e.g. not average values) at the specified work plane for each location.

Table 2 – Minimum Maintained Illuminance Levels Location

Illuminance Lux (fc)

Working Plane (mm) Related Notes [#]

_______________________________

___________

____________________

Aircraft Hanger [10] General Area

500

(50)

(900)

Area Lighting General Area Under Pipe-ways, Trestles and Walkways Piers

10 30 200

(1) (3) (20)

Ground Ground Ground

H H H

Offices Regular CAD Work Station Conference Room Elevators Corridors Stairways Washrooms

500 500 500 200 75 75 150

(50) (50) (50) (20) (7.5) (7.5) (15)

(760) Task (760) Floor Floor Floor (900)

H H H H H H

Control Rooms General Instrument Panels Consoles Back of Panel

500 500 500 100

(50) (50) (50) (10)

Floor (1700) (760) (900)

Process Interface Buildings

100

(10)

(760)

H [1]

Street Lighting (See Residential)

H V [2] V V V

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Document Responsibility: Electrical Systems Designs and Automation Issue Date: 29 July 2006 Next Planned Update: 1 March 2010

SAES-P-123 Lighting

Table 2 - Minimum Maintained Illuminance Levels (Continued) Location

Illuminance Lux (fc)

Working Plane (mm) Related Notes [#]

_______________________________

___________

____________________

Dining Facilities Dining Area (leisure, light environment) Dining Area (quick service; normal surroundings) Service Area Food Preparation Entrance Halls

150 300

(15) (30)

(760) (760)

H H

300 500 200

(30) (50) (20)

(900) (900) Floor

H H H

Electrical Rooms Vertical Face of Switchgear Battery Room

300 300

(30) (30)

(1700) Floor

V H

Electrical Substations and Switch Yards Outdoor Switch Yards General Substation (outdoor) General Substation (indoor) Indoor Substation Operating Aisles

20 20 50 150

(2) (2) (5) (15)

Ground Ground Floor Floor

H H H H

Telephone Equipment Room

500

(50)

460

V

Powerhouse Platform, Stairs (draft fans level) Burner Platform Control Area Vertical Instrument and Control Panels Control Desk Gauges (by supplementary lighting)

200 150 300 300 500 300

(20) (15) (30) (30) (50) (30)

Floor Floor (760) (1700) (760) Task

H H H V H -

30 50

(3) (5)

Ground (1700)

H V

200

(20)

Floor

H

Water Wells Control Panel Garage (non-residential) Traffic Area

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Document Responsibility: Electrical Systems Designs and Automation Issue Date: 29 July 2006 Next Planned Update: 1 March 2010

SAES-P-123 Lighting

Table 2 - Minimum Maintained Illuminance Levels (Continued) Location

Illuminance Lux (fc)

Working Plane (mm) Related Notes [#]

_______________________________

___________

____________________

Plant Process Areas [11] Walkways, Stairs, Platforms Pump Rows, Valves, Manifolds Heat Exchangers Separator Cooling Towers (equip areas) Compressor Areas Task Lighting for Gauges, valves, instruments, control panels, push-button stations General Area

50 50 50 50 50 50 50

(5) (5) (5) (5) (5) (5) (5)

Floor Ground Ground Top of Bay Ground Ground (1700)

H H H H H V

10

(1)

Ground

H

15 30 15

(1.5) (3) (1.5)

Floor Floor Ground

H H H

Loading Racks General Area Tank Truck (Loading Point)

50 100

(5) (10)

Floor Task

H H

Firehouse General Area (Interior) Repairs & Service Area Storage (parts)

200 750 300

(20) (75) (30)

(900) Task Floor

H H

General Machinery (A.C. Plants, etc.) General Aisles Gauges Instruments and Relays on Panels

200 200 300

(20) (20) (30)

(900) (1700) (1700)

V V V

Laboratories Qualitative, Quantitative and Physical Tests, Glassware, Washrooms Fume Hoods Stock Rooms

500 300 300 150

(50) (30) (30) (15)

(900) (900) Task Floor

H H H

Turbo Generators Turbine Floor Condenser, Pump, Aux. Floor Gauges (by supplementary lighting)

300 200 300

(30) (20) (30)

Floor Floor Task

H H -

Plant Non-Process Areas and Buildings Tank Fields (Tank Farms) [9] Ladders and Stairs Gauging Area Manifold Area

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Document Responsibility: Electrical Systems Designs and Automation Issue Date: 29 July 2006 Next Planned Update: 1 March 2010

SAES-P-123 Lighting

Table 2 - Minimum Maintained Illuminance Levels (Continued) Location

Illuminance Lux (fc)

Working Plane (mm) Related Notes [#]

_______________________________

___________

____________________

Warehouses Bulk Storage (outdoor) Bulk Storage (indoor) Small Bin Storage Small Parts Storage Counter Tops

10 100 100 200 300

(1) (10) (10) (20) (30)

Ground Floor (760) (760) (1200)

H H V V H

Work Shop (Repair Shop) Large Fabrication Bench and Machine Work Crane-way, Aisles Small Machine Sheet Metal Electrical Instrument

200 500 150 300 200 200 300

(20) (50) (15) (30) (20) (20) (30)

Floor (760) Floor (760) (760) (760) (760)

H H H H H H H

Change House Locker Room, Shower Lavatory (Hammam)

100 200

(10) (20)

Floor Floor

H H

Plant Roads, Bikeways, Parking Lots & Alleys Roads, Bikeways (where used) 10 Parking Lots, Alleys 10

(1) (1)

Ground Ground

750 1000 750 200

(75) (100) (75) (20)

(760) (900) (760) Floor

H H H H

100 200 300 300 200 300 100 50 100 300 500 150

(10) (20) (30) (30) (20) (30) (10) (5) (10) (30) (50) (15)

Ground Ground Floor Ground Ground Ground Ground Ground Floor Floor Floor Floor

H H H H H H H V H H H H

Schools Classrooms Manual Training Library Corridors Sports and Recreation Swimming Pools (outdoor) Football Gymnasiums (general) Softball (infield) Softball (outfield) Tennis Courts (outdoor) Golf Driving Range (tee) Golf Driving Range (180 m) Volleyball (indoor) Basketball (indoor) Squash, Racquetball Handball

H [3] H [3]

[4] [5] [4] [6] [5]

[4] [4] [5] [4]

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Document Responsibility: Electrical Systems Designs and Automation Issue Date: 29 July 2006 Next Planned Update: 1 March 2010

SAES-P-123 Lighting

Table 2 - Minimum Maintained Illuminance Levels (Continued) Location

Illuminance Lux (fc)

Working Plane (mm) Related Notes [#]

_______________________________

___________

____________________

Residential Street Lighting Local Road (residential) Parking Lots, Alleys

10 10

(1) (1)

Sidewalks (Roadside) Residential (Camps and Community Centers) Walkways Distant from roadways, and Bikeways

10 10 10 10

(1) or (1) (1) or (1)

Notes:

[1]

H is the horizontal plane

[2]

V is the vertical plane

E avg [3]

Pavement Ground

H H [7]

Ground 1800 Ground 1800

H V [8] H V [8]

≤ 6.0

E min E max [4]

≤ 3.0

E min E max [5]

≤ 2.5

E min E max [6]

≤ 3.5

E min E avg [7]

≤ 4.0

E min [8]

28 February 2005 29 July 2006

For pedestrian identification at a distance

[9]

The letter E in formulas Notes [3] to [6] represents the illumination level.

[10]

Refer to IES Handbook / Chapter 20 / Industrial Lighting/ Fig. 20-11 for Illuminance Values for Aircraft Maintenance and Manufacturing (Maintained on Tasks).

[11]

Illuminance for other area of activities not mentioned here shall be referred to in IES Handbook / Chapter 20 / Industrial Lighting / Fig. 20-29.

Revision Summary Revised the "Next Planned Updates." Reaffirmed the contents of the document, and reissued with no other changes. Minor revision.

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