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EARTHWORK CONSTRUCTION AND LAYOUT

** BORROW ** BORROW PIT VOLUMES **

When trying to figure out Borrow Pit Problems you need to understand understand a few things. 1.W 1.Water can be added or removed from soil 2.The 2.The MASS of the SOLIDS CAN NOT be changed 3. Need Need to know phase relationships in soil….which I will show you next

Phase relationship in Soil This represents the soil that you take from a borrow pit. It is made up of AIR, WA WATER, and SOLIDS. So if you separated the soil into its components it would look like this. It is referred to as a Soil Phase Diagram.

AIR WATER

SOIL

When looking at a Soil Phase Diagram you think of it two ways, 1. Volume, Volume, 2. Mass.

Mass

Volume Va = Volume Air Ai r Vw = Volume Water Vs = Volume Solid

Ma = 0

Va

AIR

Vw

WATER

Mw

Vs

SOIL

Ms

Vt = Volume Total = V a + Vw + Vs Mt = Mass Total = M w + Ms

Ma = Mass Air = 0 Mw = Mass Water Ms = Mass Solid

EARTHWORK CONSTRUCTION AND LAYOUT

** BORROW PIT VOLUMES **

Basic Terms/Formulas to know – Soil Phase relationship Specific Gravity = the density of the solids divided by the density of Water Moisture Content = Mass of Water divided by the Mass of Solids Void Ratio = Volume of Voids divided by the Volume of Solids Porosity = Volume of Voids divided by the Total Volume, Higher porosity = higher permeability Density of Water = !water = Mw/Vw English Units = 62.42 pounds per CF(pcf) SI Units = 1,000 g/liter = 1,000kg/m 3

Specific Gravity = Gs = !solids /!water =Ms/(Vs * !water )

Moisture Content (w) = Mw/Ms

Porosity (n) = Vv/Vt Vv = Volume of Voids = Vw + Va Vt = Total Volume = Vs +Vw + Va

Degree of Saturation (S) = Vw/Vv Vw = Volume of Water Vv = Total Volume of Voids

Void Ratio (e) = V v/Vs Vv = Total Volume of Voids Vs = Volume of Solid

Total or Wet Density of Soil (!wet) = M/V M = Mw + Ms V = Vw + Vs + Va

Dry Density of Soil (!dry) = Ms /V V = Vw + Vs + Va

Density of Solids = Ms/Vs

Relationships to know Dry Density of Soil (!dry) = !wet /(1+w) (!dry) = (!water * Gs)/(1+(w/S)*Gs) (!dry) = (!water * Gs)/(1+e) Total or Wet Density of Soil (!wet) = !wet = ((!water * Gs ( 1+w))/(1+e)

Specific Gravity = S * e = Gs * w Porosity (n) = e/(1+e) Void Ratio (e) = n/(1-n)

EARTHWORK CONSTRUCTION AND LAYOUT

** BORROW PIT VOLUMES **

Load and Shrinkage Factors

AIR

AIR

AIR

WATER

WATER WATER

SOIL SOIL

.90CCY

SOIL

1.0BCY

VC = VB (1 - SHRINKAGE)

VC = VB x SHRINKAGE FACTOR

VB 1.25LCY VL = VB (1+SWELL) VL = VB x SWELL FACTOR(or Load factor) DL = Dry Loose Unit Weight (!DL) DC = Dry Compacted Unit Weight (!DC) DB = Dry Bank Unit Weight (!DB)

Important Volume Change Relationships: In excavation, 1+Swell is called “Swell Factor”

LCY to CCY:

CCY to BCY:

EARTHWORK CONSTRUCTION AND LAYOUT

** BORROW PIT VOLUMES **

Borrow-Pit Method !Another

important concept to know is the Borrow Pit Method in order to calculate the volume of the borrow pit. It is also called the unit-area method. !The

Volume is determined based on a predetermined grid pattern. The site is divided into equal squares of sides 20,50, or a 100 ft. Elevations are then measured at the corners of the grid, which are given titles that correspond to the coordinates of the corner in the grid, ex: 3-D, 4-A,..

!Then

for simplicity of calculations, the points are connected to the corners

EARTHWORK CONSTRUCTION AND LAYOUT

** BORROW PIT VOLUMES **

Question #1: After surveying a borrow pit, the surveyor produced the following borrow pit grid below. If you consider 0.0, the elevation that you can cut to. What is the total cut volume (cy) available? 3.5 2.4 20 feet

A

B 3.3

2.1

1.8

2.8

C

20 feet

D 3.1

3.2 20 feet

250 cy

b.

232 cy

c.

201 cy

d.

343 cy

1.6

2.4

F 20 feet

a.

E

G 2.8

1.3 20 feet

Question # 2: 120cy of bank soil is excavated and stockpiled before being trucked and then compacted. The soil has a swell of 25% and a shrinkage of 15%. What is the final volume of the compacted soil?

a. b. c. d.

68 cy 102 cy 150 cy 128 cy

WWW.LEARNCIVILENGINEERING.COM

EARTHWORK CONSTRUCTION AND LAYOUT

** BORROW PIT VOLUMES **

Question #3. A 10 ft wide, 500 ft long, 2 ft thick road is being constructed. The soil density after compaction was found to be 112.1 pcf at an optimum moisture content of 10.5%. The soil from the borrow pit has a total density of 105pcf and a moisture content of 8.5% What is the total volume(cf) of soil that needs to be hauled from the borrow pit?

a. b. c. d.

45,395 cf 12,856 cf 11,584 cf 5,260 cf

Question # 4. Soil borings at a proposed Borrow Pit indicate that the soil is primarily a sandy clay. Cores taken of the soil in the pit indicates an average dry density of 88pcf at a moisture content of 22%. The volume of the contained soil in the fill when constructed is 20,000 cy. Based on the average results of a Standard Proctor compaction test the soil will be compacted to a density of 95 pcf at a moisture content of 25%. Dump trucks with a capacity of 15cy will be used to transport the soil from the borrow pit to the proposed road bed. 1. Assuming that the soil in the dump truck has a dry density of 69 pcf at a moisture content of 22% estimate the number of loads that will be necessary. 2. Compute the volume of the hole at the borrow pit after the soil is removed

a. b. c. d.

68 trucks 12,856 trucks 658 trucks 1,836 trucks

a. b. c. d.

36,568 cy 21,591 cy 24,564 cy 19,836 cy

EARTHWORK CONSTRUCTION AND LAYOUT

** BORROW PIT VOLUMES **

Answer #1:

Step 1: Setup a chart to get the volume under each square; Then sum up all the volumes.

Grid

Area (sf)

Average depth (ft)

Volume (cf)

A

400

(2.4+3.5+2.8+3.3)/4 = 3.0

1200

B

200

(3.5+3.3+2.1)/3 = 2.97

594

C

400

(2.8+3.3+3.2+3.1)/4 = 3.1

1240

D

400

(3.3+2.1+3.1+2.4)/4 = 2.7

1080

E

400

(2.1+1.8+2.4+1.6)/4 = 1.98

792

F

200

(3.1+2.4+2.8)/3 = 2.77

554

G

400

(2.4+2.8+1.6+1.3)/4 = 2.0

800 Vtotal = 6260cf

Step 2: Find Volume in Cubic yards !

Vtotal = 6260 cf / (27cf/cy) = 232 cy

WWW.LEARNCIVILENGINEERING.COM

Answer #2: The shrinkage factor is taken with respect to the bank volume condition.

- so, Vcompacted fill =(1-.15)(120cy) = 102cy For your information the swell is taken with respect to the bank volume condition too.

- so, Vstockpile =(1+.25)(120cy) = 150cy

Answer #3: Step 1: Find the mass of solids ( Ms) required for the controlled fill:

- Volume of Compacted soil = (500ft)(10ft)(2ft) = 10,000 cf - dry density of the compacted soil is given = 112.1 pcf - using Dry Density of Soil ( !dry) = Ms /V = 112.1pcf = M s /10,000cf, so Ms = 1,121,000 lbs

Step 2: Find total volume of soil that needs to be hauled from the borrow pit:

- using Moisture Content (w) = M w/Ms , .085 = Mw/1,121,000lbs = Mw = 95,285 lbs - Total Mass at borrow pit = 1,121,000lbs + 95,285lbs = 1,216,285 lbs - using Total or Wet Density of Soil (!wet) = M/V = 105pcf = 1,216,285 lbs/V, V = 11,583.7 cf

FYI ----to figure out the Mass of water in compacted soil

- Moisture content in compacted soil given at 10.5% = .105 - using Moisture Content (w) = M w/Ms , .105 = M w/1,121,000lbs = Mw = 117,705 lbs

Answer #4: Step 1: Find the mass of solids ( Ms) required for the controlled fill:

- Volume of Compacted soil = 20,000 cy * 27cf/cy = 540,000 cf - dry density of the compacted soil is given = 95 pcf - using Dry Density of Soil ( !dry) = Ms /V = 95 pcf = M s /540,000 cf, so M s = 51,300,000 lbs Step 2: Find the # of Trucks required to haul Soil.

- Ms = 51,300,000 lbs, and the dry density of the soil to be hauled is 69 pcf - so, 51,300,000 lbs/69pcf = 743,478 cf / 27cf/cy = 27,536 cy - so the number of trucks needed is 27,536cy/15cy/truck = 1836 trucks Step 3: Find the Volume at the borrow pit

- dry density of the compacted soil is given = 88 pcf - (!dry) = Ms /V, 88pcf = 51,300,000 lbs/V, V= 51,300,000lbs/88pcf = 582,955cf - convert to cy, 582,955cf/(27cf/cy) = 21,591cy

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** BORROW ** BORROW PIT VOLUMES **

When trying to figure out Borrow Pit Problems you need to understand understand a few things. 1.W 1.Water can be added or removed from soil 2.The 2.The MASS of the SOLIDS CAN NOT be changed 3. Need Need to know phase relationships in soil….which I will show you next

Phase relationship in Soil This represents the soil that you take from a borrow pit. It is made up of AIR, WA WATER, and SOLIDS. So if you separated the soil into its components it would look like this. It is referred to as a Soil Phase Diagram.

AIR WATER

SOIL

When looking at a Soil Phase Diagram you think of it two ways, 1. Volume, Volume, 2. Mass.

Mass

Volume Va = Volume Air Ai r Vw = Volume Water Vs = Volume Solid

Ma = 0

Va

AIR

Vw

WATER

Mw

Vs

SOIL

Ms

Vt = Volume Total = V a + Vw + Vs Mt = Mass Total = M w + Ms

Ma = Mass Air = 0 Mw = Mass Water Ms = Mass Solid

EARTHWORK CONSTRUCTION AND LAYOUT

** BORROW PIT VOLUMES **

Basic Terms/Formulas to know – Soil Phase relationship Specific Gravity = the density of the solids divided by the density of Water Moisture Content = Mass of Water divided by the Mass of Solids Void Ratio = Volume of Voids divided by the Volume of Solids Porosity = Volume of Voids divided by the Total Volume, Higher porosity = higher permeability Density of Water = !water = Mw/Vw English Units = 62.42 pounds per CF(pcf) SI Units = 1,000 g/liter = 1,000kg/m 3

Specific Gravity = Gs = !solids /!water =Ms/(Vs * !water )

Moisture Content (w) = Mw/Ms

Porosity (n) = Vv/Vt Vv = Volume of Voids = Vw + Va Vt = Total Volume = Vs +Vw + Va

Degree of Saturation (S) = Vw/Vv Vw = Volume of Water Vv = Total Volume of Voids

Void Ratio (e) = V v/Vs Vv = Total Volume of Voids Vs = Volume of Solid

Total or Wet Density of Soil (!wet) = M/V M = Mw + Ms V = Vw + Vs + Va

Dry Density of Soil (!dry) = Ms /V V = Vw + Vs + Va

Density of Solids = Ms/Vs

Relationships to know Dry Density of Soil (!dry) = !wet /(1+w) (!dry) = (!water * Gs)/(1+(w/S)*Gs) (!dry) = (!water * Gs)/(1+e) Total or Wet Density of Soil (!wet) = !wet = ((!water * Gs ( 1+w))/(1+e)

Specific Gravity = S * e = Gs * w Porosity (n) = e/(1+e) Void Ratio (e) = n/(1-n)

EARTHWORK CONSTRUCTION AND LAYOUT

** BORROW PIT VOLUMES **

Load and Shrinkage Factors

AIR

AIR

AIR

WATER

WATER WATER

SOIL SOIL

.90CCY

SOIL

1.0BCY

VC = VB (1 - SHRINKAGE)

VC = VB x SHRINKAGE FACTOR

VB 1.25LCY VL = VB (1+SWELL) VL = VB x SWELL FACTOR(or Load factor) DL = Dry Loose Unit Weight (!DL) DC = Dry Compacted Unit Weight (!DC) DB = Dry Bank Unit Weight (!DB)

Important Volume Change Relationships: In excavation, 1+Swell is called “Swell Factor”

LCY to CCY:

CCY to BCY:

EARTHWORK CONSTRUCTION AND LAYOUT

** BORROW PIT VOLUMES **

Borrow-Pit Method !Another

important concept to know is the Borrow Pit Method in order to calculate the volume of the borrow pit. It is also called the unit-area method. !The

Volume is determined based on a predetermined grid pattern. The site is divided into equal squares of sides 20,50, or a 100 ft. Elevations are then measured at the corners of the grid, which are given titles that correspond to the coordinates of the corner in the grid, ex: 3-D, 4-A,..

!Then

for simplicity of calculations, the points are connected to the corners

EARTHWORK CONSTRUCTION AND LAYOUT

** BORROW PIT VOLUMES **

Question #1: After surveying a borrow pit, the surveyor produced the following borrow pit grid below. If you consider 0.0, the elevation that you can cut to. What is the total cut volume (cy) available? 3.5 2.4 20 feet

A

B 3.3

2.1

1.8

2.8

C

20 feet

D 3.1

3.2 20 feet

250 cy

b.

232 cy

c.

201 cy

d.

343 cy

1.6

2.4

F 20 feet

a.

E

G 2.8

1.3 20 feet

Question # 2: 120cy of bank soil is excavated and stockpiled before being trucked and then compacted. The soil has a swell of 25% and a shrinkage of 15%. What is the final volume of the compacted soil?

a. b. c. d.

68 cy 102 cy 150 cy 128 cy

WWW.LEARNCIVILENGINEERING.COM

EARTHWORK CONSTRUCTION AND LAYOUT

** BORROW PIT VOLUMES **

Question #3. A 10 ft wide, 500 ft long, 2 ft thick road is being constructed. The soil density after compaction was found to be 112.1 pcf at an optimum moisture content of 10.5%. The soil from the borrow pit has a total density of 105pcf and a moisture content of 8.5% What is the total volume(cf) of soil that needs to be hauled from the borrow pit?

a. b. c. d.

45,395 cf 12,856 cf 11,584 cf 5,260 cf

Question # 4. Soil borings at a proposed Borrow Pit indicate that the soil is primarily a sandy clay. Cores taken of the soil in the pit indicates an average dry density of 88pcf at a moisture content of 22%. The volume of the contained soil in the fill when constructed is 20,000 cy. Based on the average results of a Standard Proctor compaction test the soil will be compacted to a density of 95 pcf at a moisture content of 25%. Dump trucks with a capacity of 15cy will be used to transport the soil from the borrow pit to the proposed road bed. 1. Assuming that the soil in the dump truck has a dry density of 69 pcf at a moisture content of 22% estimate the number of loads that will be necessary. 2. Compute the volume of the hole at the borrow pit after the soil is removed

a. b. c. d.

68 trucks 12,856 trucks 658 trucks 1,836 trucks

a. b. c. d.

36,568 cy 21,591 cy 24,564 cy 19,836 cy

EARTHWORK CONSTRUCTION AND LAYOUT

** BORROW PIT VOLUMES **

Answer #1:

Step 1: Setup a chart to get the volume under each square; Then sum up all the volumes.

Grid

Area (sf)

Average depth (ft)

Volume (cf)

A

400

(2.4+3.5+2.8+3.3)/4 = 3.0

1200

B

200

(3.5+3.3+2.1)/3 = 2.97

594

C

400

(2.8+3.3+3.2+3.1)/4 = 3.1

1240

D

400

(3.3+2.1+3.1+2.4)/4 = 2.7

1080

E

400

(2.1+1.8+2.4+1.6)/4 = 1.98

792

F

200

(3.1+2.4+2.8)/3 = 2.77

554

G

400

(2.4+2.8+1.6+1.3)/4 = 2.0

800 Vtotal = 6260cf

Step 2: Find Volume in Cubic yards !

Vtotal = 6260 cf / (27cf/cy) = 232 cy

WWW.LEARNCIVILENGINEERING.COM

Answer #2: The shrinkage factor is taken with respect to the bank volume condition.

- so, Vcompacted fill =(1-.15)(120cy) = 102cy For your information the swell is taken with respect to the bank volume condition too.

- so, Vstockpile =(1+.25)(120cy) = 150cy

Answer #3: Step 1: Find the mass of solids ( Ms) required for the controlled fill:

- Volume of Compacted soil = (500ft)(10ft)(2ft) = 10,000 cf - dry density of the compacted soil is given = 112.1 pcf - using Dry Density of Soil ( !dry) = Ms /V = 112.1pcf = M s /10,000cf, so Ms = 1,121,000 lbs

Step 2: Find total volume of soil that needs to be hauled from the borrow pit:

- using Moisture Content (w) = M w/Ms , .085 = Mw/1,121,000lbs = Mw = 95,285 lbs - Total Mass at borrow pit = 1,121,000lbs + 95,285lbs = 1,216,285 lbs - using Total or Wet Density of Soil (!wet) = M/V = 105pcf = 1,216,285 lbs/V, V = 11,583.7 cf

FYI ----to figure out the Mass of water in compacted soil

- Moisture content in compacted soil given at 10.5% = .105 - using Moisture Content (w) = M w/Ms , .105 = M w/1,121,000lbs = Mw = 117,705 lbs

Answer #4: Step 1: Find the mass of solids ( Ms) required for the controlled fill:

- Volume of Compacted soil = 20,000 cy * 27cf/cy = 540,000 cf - dry density of the compacted soil is given = 95 pcf - using Dry Density of Soil ( !dry) = Ms /V = 95 pcf = M s /540,000 cf, so M s = 51,300,000 lbs Step 2: Find the # of Trucks required to haul Soil.

- Ms = 51,300,000 lbs, and the dry density of the soil to be hauled is 69 pcf - so, 51,300,000 lbs/69pcf = 743,478 cf / 27cf/cy = 27,536 cy - so the number of trucks needed is 27,536cy/15cy/truck = 1836 trucks Step 3: Find the Volume at the borrow pit

- dry density of the compacted soil is given = 88 pcf - (!dry) = Ms /V, 88pcf = 51,300,000 lbs/V, V= 51,300,000lbs/88pcf = 582,955cf - convert to cy, 582,955cf/(27cf/cy) = 21,591cy

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